Scientific Publications

From Magnone M et al., FASEB J. 2015 Dec;29(12):4783-93. doi: 10.1096/fj.15-277731. Epub 2015 Aug 4

“Microgram amounts of abscisic acid in fruit extracts improve glucose tolerance and reduce insulinemia in rats and in humans”

Abstract

2-Cis,4-trans-abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that is present also in animals. Several lines of evidence suggest that ABA contributes to the regulation of glycemia in mammals: nanomolar ABA stimulates insulin release from β-pancreatic cells and glucose transporter-4-mediated glucose uptake by myoblasts and adipocytes in vitro; plasma ABA increases in normal human subjects, but not in diabetic patients, after a glucose load for an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The presence of ABA in fruits prompted an exploration of the bioavailability of dietary ABA and the effect of ABA-rich fruit extracts on glucose tolerance. Rats underwent an OGTT, with or without 1 µg/kg ABA, either synthetic or present in a fruit extract. Human volunteers underwent an OGTT or a standard breakfast and lunch, with or without a fruit extract, yielding an ABA dose of 0.85 or 0.5 µg/kg, respectively. Plasma glucose, insulin, and ABA were measured at different time points. Oral ABA at 0.5-1 µg/kg significantly lowered glycemia and insulinemia in rats and in humans. Thus, the glycemia-lowering effect of low-dose ABA in vivo does not depend on an increased insulin release. Low-dose ABA intake may be proposed as an aid to improving glucose tolerance in patients with diabetes who are deficient in or resistant to insulin.

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From Magnone M et al, Nutrients 2018,Oct 12; 10(10). doi:10.3390/nu10101495

Chronic Intake of Micrograms of Abscisic Acid Improves Glycemia and Lipidemia in a Human Study and in High-Glucose Fed Mice

Abstract

We tested the effect of chronic low-dose abscisic acid (ABA), a phytohormone-regulating human glucose tolerance, on the metabolic parameters that are dysregulated in prediabetes and metabolic syndrome (MS).Ten healthy subjects received 1 µg ABA/Kg body weight (BW)/day as an ABA-rich food supplement: (i) the glycemia profile after a carbohydrate-rich meal, with or without supplement, was compared; (ii) fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), and body mass index (BMI) after 75 days of daily supplementation of a habitual Mediterranean diet were compared with starting values.CD1 mice were fed a high-glucose diet with or without synthetic ABA (1 µg/Kg BW) for 4 months and the same parameters investigated in the human study were compared. The food supplement significantly reduced the area under the curve of glycemia after a carbohydrate-rich meal and FBG, HbA1c, TC, and BMI after chronic treatment. ABA-treated mice showed a significant reduction of HbA1c, TC, and body weight gain compared with untreated controls. The combined results from the human and murine studies allow us to conclude that the observed improvement of the metabolic parameters can be attributed to ABA and to advocate the use of ABA-containing food supplements in prediabetes and/or MS.

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